This course examines the environmental, economic, and social dimensions of SD by focusing on changing patterns of consumption, production, and distribution of resources. To better address these issues, several multilateral agencies have advocated and promoted environmentally friendly policies such as ‘sustainable development’ and a range of carbon emission reduction strategies. Since the mid-1980s, sustainable development has become an agenda pursued by several nations in the world.  Therefore in this course, we will critically examine ecological and sustainability issues with key questions such as-What is sustainable development? What are the underlying causes of ecological degradation? How is development related to environmental problems? How are ecological issues linked to conflict and collective violence? Can sustainability be achieved through sustainable development? Has environmentalism and conservation made a difference in solving environmental problems? We will examine SD and the associated economic and environmental issues by focusing on the growth and needs of human populations and the associated environmental impact over time. Consideration will be given to the driving forces that influence SD with special reference to the impact on water resources, energy sources and uses, and waste management.